gramatyka

General questions

asked by
Ania Marysia
published
21 days ago

locative declensions: I know that masculine nouns end with either e or u I think. But how do I know that stół becomes stole instead of stol(u)l(w)e or sąsiad becomes sąsiedzie not sasiade?

1 answer
answered by
Celina
published
17 days ago

The locative case is often used to indicate location. It is always used in conjuction with a prepostion.

Locative prepositions: * w/we - in * na - on * przy - near, by **

  1. The e-ending Nouns ending with so-called hard consonants, regardless of gender, take an -e ending in the locative.
  2. sklep - w sklepie
  3. impreza - na imprezie Here, the hard constonant is softened. With some consontants this is done by adding an -i before the locative -e ending.
  4. kino - przy kinie

  5. Sound changes in the locative case With the four consonants d, ł, r and t, major sound changes occur before the locative ending -e is added.

  6. obiad - przy obiedzie

  7. krzesło - na krześłe

  8. gitara - na gitarze

  9. prezent - w prezencie

  10. szkoła - w szkole

  11. teatr - przy teatrze

  12. supermarket - w supermarkecie

  13. autostrada - na austostradzie

  14. The locative ending -u Only masculine and neuter nouns take on the ending -u when expressed in the locative.

  15. bagaż - w bagażu When a masculine noun ends in a consonant with an acute accent, the and -i is insterted before the locative -u ending.

  16. koń - na koniu

  17. łosoś - w łososiu Neuter nouns For neuter nouns, the -u ending replaces the last vowel in the word.

  18. łóżko -w łóżku

  19. mieszkanie - w mieszkaniu

  20. morze - w morzu Exceptions Masculine and neuter nouns ending with the hard consonant -ch also take the locative -u ending.

  21. dach - na dachu

  22. ucho - w uchu The word dom is another exception.

  23. dom - w domu Words from foreign languages that end in -um remain changed in thed locative.

  24. centrum - w centrum

  25. The locative ending -i Feminine nouns ending with a soft consonant usually take the locative ending -i, i.e. the -a is replaced with by an -i.

  26. fala - na fali For nouns ending in -ia, you simply drop the -a.

  27. kuchnia - w kuchni Feminine nouns which end in a consonant with an acute accent take the eqivalent with -i.

  28. miłość - w miłości The locative ending -y After the consonants c, ż and all letter combinations with z, feminine nouns take the locative ending - y.

  29. praca - w pracy

  30. plaża - na plaży

  31. pomarańcza -w pomarańczy

  32. w nocy

  33. w policji

  34. w miłości

  35. w podróży

  36. w piekarni

  37. w suszy

  38. The consonants g and k Although they are actually hard consonants, g and k are sometimes treated like soft consonants. pociąg - w pociągu

  39. droga - w drodze In the locative case, masculine and neuter nouns ending in g or k are treated as soft, and feminine nouns are treated as hard.

  40. łóżko - w łóżku

  41. Polska - w Polsce Nouns with g and* k in the locative *Like soft consonants, masculine and neuter nouns having a g or a k in their ending take a -u ending in the locative. *

  42. jajko - w jajku

  43. próg - na progu *For nouns ending in -ka and -ga (i.e. most feminine nouns) however, the locative ending is -e. For example -ka changes to -ce and -ga changes to -dze. *

  44. książka - w książce

  45. waga - na wadze**

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